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Tonneau Cover
A cover of leather or other soft pliable material used for protecting the interior of a convertible when the soft-top is down.

Turning Circle
Diameter of a circle within which a car can be turned around.

Turning Radius
Diameter of a circle within which a car can be turned around.

Two Plus Two (2+2)
Body style incorporating two front seats plus two very small seats at the rear for children, small pets or extra luggage.

Thermal Reactor
A high-volume thermally isolated chamber replacing the exhaust manifold and providing a place for high-temperature after burning of exhaust pollutants.

Thrust Bearing
A bearing with flanges on its two sides that prevents a shaft such as the crankshaft from moving endwise.

Tie Rod
In the steering system, the rods that link the pitman arm and the idler arm to the steering knuckle arms.

Refers to the crankshaft angles at which the valves and ignition points open and close.

Timing Chain
A chain for driving the camshaft from the crankshaft.

Timing Belt
A belt for driving the camshaft from the crankshaft.

Timing Gears
A method of driving the camshaft from the crankshaft often used where long life and hard service are expected as in commercial vehicles and race cars.

Torsion Bar
A long straight bar fastened to the frame at one end and to a suspension part at the other.

An engine with double overhead camshafts.


Total Out-Of-Pocket Cost

This is the total of all monthly payments, any lease fees and deposits, and any capital cost reduction (except tax, license, and registration) from lease inception to closure.

The turning or twisting force such as the force imparted on the drive line by the engine. Usually measured in lb.-ft. It differs from work or power in that torque does not necessarily produce motion.

 Turbo Charger
An exhaust powered turbine super-charger. Turbochargers always use centrifugal-flow compressors, which operate efficiently at the high rotational speeds produced by the exhaust turbine.

Throttle Body
A housing containing a valve to regulate the airflow through the intake manifold. The throttle-body is usually located between the air cleaner and the intake plenum.

A drive setup in which the transmission gearbox, clutch, final drive, and differential are combined into a single unit connected directly to the driveshaft. It is used mostly in rear-engine cars.


Front track is the distance between the center of the left front wheel and the center of the right front wheel when the vehicle is set to its normal ride height and wheel alignment specifications. Rear track is the distance between the center of the left rear wheel and the center of the right rear wheel. They are not always the same.

Torque Converter
A unit in an automatic transmission, quite similar to the fluid coupling, that transfers engine torque to the transmission input shaft. It also cushions the flow of power. Unlike the fluid coupling, the torque converter can multiply engine torque. This is accomplished by installing one or more stators between the torus members. In the torque converter the driving torus is referred to as the "pump" and the driven torus as the "turbine." The engine drives the impeller, which in turn impels fluid against the vanes of a turbine connected through transmission gears to the driveshaft of the automobile. The stator redirects oil flow from the turbine to boost impeller action and multiply engine torque.

Nonfunctional metal or plastic molding, frames, and other decorative additions to vehicle bodies and interiors.

An adjustment of the front wheels where the distance from the center of the left wheel to the center of the right wheel is less at the front of the wheels than at the back of the wheels. A slight amount of toe-in is usually specified to keep the front wheels running parallel on the road by offsetting other forces that tend to spread the wheels apart. The major force is the backward thrust of the road against the tire tread while the vehicle is moving forward. Other factors include play in the tie-rod assembly and allowance for angular changes caused by wheel bounce or variations in road conditions. Toe-in is measured in fractions of an inch or millimeters.

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