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RPM
The speed at which the engine crankshaft turns.

Roll Bar
A hoop of tubular steel installed behind the driver and extending above his head and across the car. The rollbar helps protect the driver from injury if the car rolls over.

Roll Cage
A tubular steel structure incorporating a rollbar plus additional bars along the doors, windshield header, roof rails, etc., built into some racing cars to help protect the driver if the car rolls over, is impacted by another car or crashes.

Rack & Pinion Steering
Steering system having a pinion gear on the end of the steering shaft that mates with a rack. When the steering wheel is turned, the pinion turns, moving the rack to the left or right. This movement is carried through tie rods to the steering arms at the wheels.

Refrigerant
The substance used in an air-conditioning system that absorbs and gives up heat as it changes from a liquid to a gas to a liquid.

Rocker Arm
A lever located on a fulcrum or shaft, one end on the valve stem and the other either on the push rod or directly on the camshaft lobes. As the camshaft rotates, the arms rock on their fulcrums causing the valves to open and close.

Refundable Deposit
This is a refundable deposit required at lease inception. In some cases it may be used to satisfy the final monthly payment. It is sometime called a security deposit.


Residual Discount
If the end-of-lease purchase price (stated residual value) is greater than the expected end-of-lease value (expected residual value), the dollar difference represents the value of the vehicle that you will not pay for during the lease.

Residual Penalty
If the end-of-lease purchase price (stated residual value) is less than the expected end-of-lease value (expected residual value), the dollar difference represents the additional value of the vehicle you'll pay for during the lease.


Residual Value (Expected)
This is the projected expected value of the vehicle at the end of the lease. Residual value is a measure of the vehicle's expected depreciation.

Residual Value (Stated)
The stated residual value is usually the same as the end-of-lease purchase price. The higher the stated residual value of the car, the lower your monthly payments. Stated residual values are often higher or lower than the expected residual value for a car, the lessor can raise or lower the monthly payments and the net interest rate for the lease. Stated residual value also determines whether you should buy the vehicle at the end of the lease. If at the end of a lease, the vehicle's market value is less than the stated residual value, the lessee would be prudent not to purchase the car. On the other hand, if the actual market value were greater than the predetermined residual, then the lessee could buy the car, sell it, and pocket the difference.

Road Holding
The ability of a vehicle to grip the pavement.


Rotor
A small rotating cap-like unit at the end of the distributor shaft. It is located on the breaker cam inside the cap. It connects between the center electrode and the various outer spark plug terminals as it turns, thus distributing the high voltage from the ignition coil secondary winding to the proper spark plug.

Radiator
A device that cools the liquid in the cooling system by allowing it to circulate through a series of water channels, which are exposed to air ducts.

Rim
The metal assembly consisting of a base and either a side ring or a side and lock ring combination, which are removable from one side for tire mounting. The opposite side has a fixed flange to retain the tire.


Rotary Engine

An internal combustion engine which is not of a reciprocating (piston) engine design. There is no true crankshaft, although the power-take-off shaft is sometimes called the crankshaft. It is stationary or fixed in that it simply spins in place. The central rotor turns in one direction only and yet produces the required intake, compression, firing and exhaust strokes. Because it uses rotary motion instead of reciprocating motion, the rotary engine has better balance and less vibration than piston engines. Two common rotary engines are the gas turbine and the Wankel.

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