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B-Post (B-Pillar)
The side or door posts that connect the sills and the roof and provide roof support on a car. On a true "hardtop" design ( a term derived from "hardtop convertible") these pillars are missing, leaving uninterrupted glass area along the sides of the car.

 B-Pillar (B-Post)
The side or door posts that connect the sills and the roof and provide roof support on a car. On a true "hardtop" design ( a term derived from "hardtop convertible") these pillars are missing, leaving uninterrupted glass area along the sides of the car.

 Backbone Frame
A frame, having the cross-section of a rectangular box, that runs along the center of the car and occupies the space between the seats. This box generally divides at the front, running along each side of the gearbox and engine up to a crossmember to which the front suspension pieces are attached. At the rear a similar triangular frame encloses the final-drive housing and provides attaching points for the rear suspension.


Bead

At the band of each sidewall nearest the rim, that element which makes contact and seals a tubeless tire with the wheel rim.

Bell Housing
The covering (named for its shape) that surrounds the flywheel and clutch of a manual-gearbox car or the flywheel and torque converter with automatic transmission.


Bench Seat

A seat running the width of the car.

BTU (British Thermal Unit)
The amount of heat that must be added to one pound of water to raise its temperature one Fahrenheit degree.

Bucket Seat
An individual seat (usually found in pairs at the front of the car) so named because the curvature of the backrest and cushion resembles a cutout bucket.

Belt
A reinforcing band normally textile, fiberglass or steel, running around the circumference of a tire and strengthening the tread area.

Belted Piston
A piston with a continuous steel band cast into the skirt below the rings for controlling skirt expansion.


Blow-Off Valve
A one-way valve that opens to the atmosphere above a certain set pressure to relieve excessive internal pressure buildup; often used with a turbocharger installation to the limit boost pressure to the engine.

Bore
In a piston engine, the diameter of the cylinder, usually measured in either inches or millimeters.

Brake Cylinder
A cylinder containing a movable piston actuated by hydraulic pressure to push fluid through the lines and wheel cylinders and force the brake lining or pads against a drum or disc.

Brake Lines
The tubes or hoses connecting the master cylinder to the wheel cylinders in a hydraulic brake system.


Brake Pads
For disc brakes, the replaceable flat segments consisting of a rigid backing plate plus frictional lining that take the place of the shoe and lining in a drum brake. Brake pads are sometimes referred to as brake pucks.

Brake Shoe
The arc-shaped carrier to which the friction lining are mounted and which force the lining against the rotating drum during braking.

Breaker Arm
The movable part of a set of contact points in a distributor.

Bypass Filter
A type of filter in which only some of the oil from the oil pump flows through the filter, the remainder bypassing the filter in its way to various engine parts.

Base Interest Rate
This represents the interest paid on the usage of the vehicle during a lease. It is the 'cost' of a lease before factoring in discounts, fees, and penalties and is not directly comparable to the APR for a loan. Lowering the base interest rate is one of the methods manufacturers use to subsidize leases. The phrase 'money factor' measures the same cost and can be converted into a base interest rate. For example, to convert a money factor of 0.00276 into an approximate base interest rate would multiply the money factor by 24. The result would be 0.0662 or 6.6%.

Buy At End-Of Term Interest Rate
This is the effective net interest rate for the lease if, at the end of the lease, the car is purchased at the end-of-lease purchase price.

Bounce (Valve)
It indicates a condition where the valve is not held tightly closed in the seat even though the camshaft has not opened it. Also called "flutter."

BHP (Brake Horsepower)
A measurement of the actual usable power (not calculated power) measured at the output shaft (usually the crankshaft) rather than at the driveshaft or the wheels. Thus none of the auxiliaries (gearbox, generator, alternator, differential, water pump, etc.) are attached. It is called the brake horsepower because the shaft power is usually measured by an absorption dynamometer or "brake." This is not the brake on the vehicle's wheels but a testing device applied to the shaft. This instrument is applied to stop or absorb the rotation of the output shaft and returns a value.

Brake Horsepower (BHP)
A measurement of the actual usable power (not calculated power) measured at the output shaft (usually the crankshaft) rather than at the driveshaft or the wheels. Thus none of the auxiliaries (gearbox, generator, alternator, differential, water pump, etc.) are attached. It is called the brake horsepower because the shaft power is usually measured by an absorption dynamometer or "brake." This is not the brake on the vehicle's wheels but a testing device applied to the shaft. This instrument is applied to stop or absorb the rotation of the output shaft and returns a value.

Ball Joint
A flexible joint using a ball and socket type of construction, used in steering linkage setups, steering knuckle pivot supports, etc. Their flexibility helps to compensate for the changes in the wheel and steering when turning or hitting a bump on the road. There are usually upper and lower ball joints attached to the upper and lower A-arms.

Blow-Off Valve
A one-way valve that opens to the atmosphere above a certain set pressure to relieve excessive internal pressure buildup; often used with a turbocharger installation to limit boost pressure to the engine.

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